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Multiplex Networks: Basic Formalism and Structural Properties

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

This book provides the basis of a formal language and explores its possibilities in the characterization of multiplex networks. Armed with the formalism developed, the authors define structural metrics for multiplex networks. A methodology to generalize monoplex structural metrics to multiplex networks is also presented so that the reader will be able to generalize other metrics of interest in a systematic way. Therefore, this book will serve as a guide for the theoretical development of new...

Large teams develop and small teams disrupt science and technology

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

One of the most universal trends in science and technology today is the growth of large teams in all areas, as solitary researchers and small teams diminish in prevalence1,2,3. Increases in team size have been attributed to the specialization of scientific activities3, improvements in communication technology4,5, or the complexity of modern problems that require interdisciplinary solutions6,7,8. This shift in team size raises the question of whether and how the character of the science and...

A collaborative multiyear, multimodel assessment of seasonal influenza forecasting in the United States

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

Accurate prediction of the size and timing of infectious disease outbreaks could help public health officials in planning an appropriate response. This paper compares approaches developed by five different research groups to forecast seasonal influenza outbreaks in real time in the United States. Many of the models show more accurate forecasts than a historical baseline. A major impediment to predictive ability was the real-time accuracy of available data. The field of infectious disease...

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems (Ricard Solé & Santiago F. Elena)

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New...

Economic Foundations for Social Complexity Science: Theory, Sentiments, and Empirical Laws (edited by Yuji Aruka & Alan Kirman)

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

This book focuses on how important massive information is and how sensitive outcomes are to information. In this century humans now are coming up against the massive utilization of information in various contexts. The advent of super intelligence is drastically accelerating the evolution of the socio-economic system. Our traditional analytic approach must therefore be radically reformed in order to adapt to an information-sensitive framework, which means giving up myopic purification and the...

The Multilayer Structure of Corporate Networks

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

Various company interactions can be described by networks, for instance the ownership networks and the board membership networks. To understand the ecosystem of companies, these interactions cannot be seen in isolation. For this purpose we construct a new multilayer network of interactions between companies in Germany and in the United Kingdom, combining ownership links, social ties through joint board directors, R\&D collaborations and stock correlations in one linked multiplex dataset. We...

Percolation and the Effective Structure of Complex Networks

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

Analytical approaches to model the structure of complex networks can be distinguished into two groups according to whether they consider an intensive (e.g., fixed degree sequence and random otherwise) or an extensive (e.g., adjacency matrix) description of the network structure. While extensive approaches—such as the state-of-the-art message passing approximation—typically yield more accurate predictions, intensive approaches provide crucial insights on the role played by any given structural...

Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. presidential election

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

The spread of fake news on social media became a public concern in the United States after the 2016 presidential election. We examined exposure to and sharing of fake news by registered voters on Twitter and found that engagement with fake news sources was extremely concentrated. Only 1% of individuals accounted for 80% of fake news source exposures, and 0.1% accounted for nearly 80% of fake news sources shared. Individuals most likely to engage with fake news sources were conservative leaning,...

The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution (Richard Wrangham)

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

We Homo sapiens can be the nicest of species and also the nastiest. What occurred during human evolution to account for this paradox? What are the two kinds of aggression that primates are prone to, and why did each evolve separately? How does the intensity of violence among humans compare with the aggressive behavior of other primates? How did humans domesticate themselves? And how were the acquisition of language and the practice of capital punishment determining factors in the rise of...

Continuous versus Discontinuous Transitions in the $D$-Dimensional Generalized Kuramoto Model: Odd $D$ is Different

February 21, 2019 Comments (0)

The Kuramoto model, originally proposed to model the dynamics of many interacting oscillators, has been used and generalized for a wide range of applications involving the collective behavior of large heterogeneous groups of dynamical units whose states are characterized by a scalar angle variable. One such application in which we are interested is the alignment of orientation vectors among members of a swarm. Despite being commonly used for this purpose, the Kuramoto model can only describe...