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Complexity Digest's Blog

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Optimal Sequence Memory in Driven Random Networks

November 30, 2018 Comments (0)

Autonomous, randomly coupled, neural networks display a transition to chaos at a critical coupling strength. Here, we investigate the effect of a time-varying input on the onset of chaos and the resulting consequences for information processing. Dynamic mean-field theory yields the statistics of the activity, the maximum Lyapunov exponent, and the memory capacity of the network. We find an exact condition that determines the transition from stable to chaotic dynamics and the sequential memory...

Quantifying Biases in Online Information Exposure

November 28, 2018 Comments (0)

Our consumption of online information is mediated by filtering, ranking, and recommendation algorithms that introduce unintentional biases as they attempt to deliver relevant and engaging content. It has been suggested that our reliance on online technologies such as search engines and social media may limit exposure to diverse points of view and make us vulnerable to manipulation by disinformation. In this article, we mine a massive data set of web traffic to quantify two kinds of bias: (i)...

The Model Thinker: What You Need to Know to Make Data Work for You: Scott E. Page

November 28, 2018 Comments (0)

From the stock market to genomics laboratories, census figures to marketing email blasts, we are awash with data. But as anyone who has ever opened up a spreadsheet packed with seemingly infinite lines of data knows, numbers aren’t enough: we need to know how to make those numbers talk. In The Model Thinker, social scientist Scott E. Page shows us the mathematical, statistical, and computational models–from linear regression to random walks and far beyond–that can turn anyone...

Alife 2019: The 2019 Conference on Artificial Life

November 28, 2018 Comments (0)

How Can Artificial Life Help Solve Societal Challenges? Artificial Life has historically been regarded by its adversaries as an academic “hobby” with little relation to real life. We feel that these days are past, as in fact, our interdisciplinary and constantly self-innovating discipline brings together a set of skills and perspectives with a unique potential to tackle some of the most pressing societal challenges of our times. The theme “How can Artificial Life help to solve Societal...

Multiscale impact of researcher mobility

November 28, 2018 Comments (0)

International mobility facilitates the exchange of scientific, institutional and cultural knowledge. Yet whether globalization and advances in virtual communication technologies have altered the impact of researcher mobility is a relevant and open question that we address by analysing a broad international set of 26 170 physicists from 1980 to 2009, focusing on the 10-year period centred around each mobility event to assess the impact of mobility on research outcomes. We account for secular...

Rank-frequency distribution of natural languages: a difference of probabilities approach

November 27, 2018 Comments (0)

The time variation of the rank k of words for six Indo-European languages is obtained using data from Google Books. For low ranks the distinct languages behave differently, maybe due to syntaxis rules, whereas for k>50 the law of large numbers predominates. The dynamics of k is described stochastically through a master equation governing the time evolution of its probability density, which is approximated by a Fokker-Planck equation that is solved analytically. The difference between the...

Measurability of the epidemic reproduction number in data-driven contact networks

November 27, 2018 Comments (0)

The analysis of real epidemiological data has raised issues of the adequacy of the classic homogeneous modeling framework and quantities, such as the basic reproduction number in real-world situations. Based on high-quality sociodemographic data, here we generate a multiplex network describing the contact pattern of the Italian and Dutch populations. By using a microsimulation approach, we show that, for epidemics spreading on realistic contact networks, it is not possible to define a steady...

Bio-inspired computing: Algorithms review, deep analysis, and the scope of applications

November 26, 2018 Comments (0)

Bio-inspired computing represents the umbrella of different studies of computer science, mathematics, and biology in the last years. Bio-inspired computing optimization algorithms is an emerging approach which is based on the principles and inspiration of the biological evolution of nature to develop new and robust competing techniques. In the last years, the bio-inspired optimization algorithms are recognized in machine learning to address the optimal solutions of complex problems in science...

Artificial Intelligence Hits the Barrier of Meaning

November 25, 2018 Comments (0)

As someone who has worked in A.I. for decades, I’ve witnessed the failure of similar predictions of imminent human-level A.I., and I’m certain these latest forecasts will fall short as well. The challenge of creating humanlike intelligence in machines remains greatly underestimated. Today’s A.I. systems sorely lack the essence of human intelligence: understanding the situations we experience, being able to grasp their meaning. The mathematician and philosopher Gian-Carlo Rota famously asked, “I...

Credit Is About Perception More Than Performance

November 24, 2018 Comments (0)

I first learned about Douglas Prasher three years ago, when an algorithm we’d just developed made an unpredictable prediction: He should have been a recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize. Instead, the award had been given to three other scientists. Even more surprising was our inability to find Prasher anywhere. He wasn’t on the faculty at any university. We couldn’t locate him at an industrial research lab. In fact, as we started digging for him, we realized that he hadn’t written a research paper...