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Complexity Digest's Blog

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A Human Development Framework for CO2 Reductions

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

Consensus emerging in favor of low CO2 stabilization targets requires the participation of developing countries in the efforts to reduce global green-house emissions [1]. For example, it has been claimed that in order to keep global temperatures below a 2°C increase, developing countries should attain more than 20 % CO2 reductions below business-as-usual levels by the year 2020 [2]. The...
PLoS ONE

Failure of Adaptive Self-Organized Criticality during Epileptic Seizure Attacks

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

Over the recent years it has become apparent that the concept of phase transitions is not only applicable to the systems classically considered in physics. It applies to a much wider class of complex systems exhibiting phases, characterized by qualitatively different types of long-term behavior. In the critical states, which are located directly at the transition, small changes can have a large...
PLoS Comput Biol

The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local Exceptionality

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

The factors that explain differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult to measure and identify unambiguously. Here we show that a synthesis of the classical representation of economic activity in a city in terms of a production function, together with a scaling perspective that accounts for the systematic effects of population size, leads to a new expression for...
SFI Working Papers

Effective Theories for Circuits and Automata

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

Abstracting an effective theory from a complicated process is central to the study of complexity. Even when the underlying mechanisms are understood, or at least measurable, the presence of dissipation and irreversibility in biological, computational and social systems makes the problem harder. Here we demonstrate the construction of effective theories in the presence of both irreversibility and...
SFI Working Papers

Predictability of Evolutionary Trajectories in Fitness Landscapes

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

Is evolution deterministic, hence predictable, or stochastic, that is unpredictable? What would happen if one could “replay the tape of evolution”: will the outcomes of evolution be completely different or is evolution so constrained that history will be repeated? Arguably, these questions are among the most intriguing and most difficult in evolutionary biology. In other words, the...
PLoS Comput Biol

Unraveling the Obesity-Cancer Connection

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

A growing body of research shows that insulin and a related hormone play a key role in fueling tumors. They also may be a link between obesity, diabetes, and...
Science

Ohm’s Law Survives to the Atomic Scale

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

As silicon electronics approaches the atomic scale, interconnects and circuitry become comparable in size to the active device components. Maintaining low electrical resistivity at this scale is challenging because of the presence of confining surfaces and interfaces. We report on the fabrication of wires in silicon—only one atom tall and four atoms wide—with exceptionally low resistivity...
Science

Causal Effects for Prediction and Deliberative Decision Making of Embodied Systems

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

This article deals with the causal structure of an agent’s sensori-motor loop and its relation to deliberative decision making. Of particular interest are causal effects that can be identified from an agent-centric perspective based on in situ observations. Within this identification, an optimal world model of the agent plays a central role. Its optimality is characterized in terms of...
SFI Working Papers

Cooperation, structure, and hierarchy in multiadaptive games

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

Game-theoretical models where the rules of the game and the interaction structure both coevolve with the game dynamics—multiadaptive games—capture very flexible situations where cooperation among selfish agents can emerge. In this work, we will discuss a multiadaptive model presented in a recent Letter [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 028702 (2011)] as well as generalizations of it. The model captures...
Phys. Rev. E

Computer Runtimes and the Length of Proofs: On an Algorithmic Probabilistic Application to Waiting Times in Automatic Theorem Proving

January 6, 2012 Comments (0)

This paper is an experimental exploration of the relationship between the runtimes of Turing machines and the length of proofs in formal axiomatic systems. We compare the number of halting Turing machines of a given size to the number of provable theorems of first-order logic of a given size, and the runtime of the longest-running Turing machine of a given size to the proof length of the...
arXiv