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Gravity and scaling laws of city to city migration

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

Models of human migration provide powerful tools to forecast the flow of migrants, measure the impact of a policy, determine the cost of physical and political frictions and more. Here, we analyse the migration of individuals from and to cities in the US, finding that city to city migration follows scaling laws, so that the city size is a significant factor in determining whether, or not, an individual decides to migrate and the city size of both the origin and destination play key roles in the...

Taking census of physics

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

Over the past decades, the diversity of areas explored by physicists has exploded, encompassing new topics from biophysics and chemical physics to network science. However, it is unclear how these new subfields emerged from the traditional subject areas and how physicists explore them. To map out the evolution of physics subfields, here, we take an intellectual census of physics by studying physicists’ careers. We use a large-scale publication data set, identify the subfields of 135,877...

On the frequency and severity of interstate wars

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

Lewis Fry Richardson argued that the frequency and severity of deadly conflicts of all kinds, from homicides to interstate wars and everything in between, followed universal statistical patterns: their frequency followed a simple Poisson arrival process and their severity followed a simple power-law distribution. Although his methods and data in the mid-20th century were neither rigorous nor comprehensive, his insights about violent conflicts have endured. In this chapter, using modern...

Opinion Dynamics and Collective Decisions

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

We expect that democracy enables us to utilize collective intelligence such that our collective decisions build and enhance social welfare, and such that we accept their distributive and normative consequences. Collective decisions are produced by voting procedures which aggregate individual preferences and judgments. Before and after, individual preferences and judgments change as their underlying attitudes, values, and opinions change through discussion and deliberation. In large groups,...

Complexity and Self-Organization | Frontiers Research Topic

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

Complexity occurs when relevant interactions prevent the study of elements of a system in isolation. These interactions between elements may lead to the self-organization of the system. In computational intelligence, complexity and self-organization have been studied and exploited with different purposes. This Research Topic aims to bring together novel research into a coherent collection, spanning from theory and methods to simulations and applications. Computational measures of complexity and...

Where Does a Shark’s Skin Get Its Pattern?

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

In 1952, well before developmental biologists spoke in terms of Hoxgenes and transcription factors, or even understood DNA’s structure, Alan Turing had an idea. The famed mathematician who hastened the end of World War II by cracking the Enigma code turned his mind to the natural world and devised an elegant mathematical model of pattern formation. His theory outlined how endless varieties of stripes, spots, and scales could emerge from the interaction of two simple, hypothetical chemical...

Pull out all the stops: Textual analysis via punctuation sequences

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

Whether enjoying the lucid prose of a favorite author or slogging through some other writer’s cumbersome, heavy-set prattle (full of parentheses, em-dashes, compound adjectives, and Oxford commas), readers will notice stylistic signatures not only in word choice and grammar, but also in punctuation itself. Indeed, visual sequences of punctuation from different authors produce marvelously different (and visually striking) sequences. Punctuation is a largely overlooked stylistic feature in...

Complex Systems Summer School | Santa Fe Institute

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

The SFI Complex Systems Summer School (CSSS) offers an intensive 4-week introduction to complex behavior in mathematical, physical, living, and social systems. Lectures are taught by the faculty of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) and other leading educators and scholars. The school is for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and professionals seeking to transcend traditional disciplinary boundaries, take intellectual risks, and ask big questions about complex systems. The program consists of...

Causal deconvolution by algorithmic generative models

February 21, 2019 by Complexity Digest   Comments (0)

New paper in Nature Machine Intelligence and a video produced by Nature shows how small programs can help deconvolve signals and data: https://www.nature.com/articles/s42256-018-0005-0 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkmz7DAA-t8   "Most machine learning approaches extract statistical features from data, rather than the underlying causal mechanisms. A different approach analyses information in a general way by extracting recursive patterns from data using generative models under the...