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Publication Name: Complexity Digest

Brief description: Networking the Complexity Community

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Joined: October 5th, 2011


Complexity Digest wrote a new blog post titled The Standard Genetic Code can Evolve from a Two-Letter GC Code Without Information Loss or Costly Reassignments

It is widely agreed that the standard genetic code must have been preceded by a simpler code that encoded fewer amino acids. How this simpler code could have expanded into the standard genetic code is not well understood because most changes to the code are costly. Taking inspiration from the recently synthesized six-letter code, we propose a novel hypothesis: the initial genetic code consisted of only two letters, G and C, and then expanded the number of available codons via the introduction of an additional pair of letters, A and U. Various lines of evidence, including the relative...
(2 days ago)

Complexity Digest wrote a new blog post titled Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms (Hannah Fry)

A look inside the algorithms that are shaping our lives and the dilemmas they bring with them. If you were accused of a crime, who would you rather decide your sentence―a mathematically consistent algorithm incapable of empathy or a compassionate human judge prone to bias and error? What if you want to buy a driverless car and must choose between one programmed to save as many lives as possible and another that prioritizes the lives of its own passengers? And would you agree to share your family’s full medical history if you were told that it would help researchers find a cure for cancer?...
(4 days ago)

Complexity Digest wrote a new blog post titled Stepping Stones to Synthetic Biology (Sergio Carrà)

This book explores fascinating topics at the edge of life, guiding the reader all the way from the relation of life processes to the second law of thermodynamics and the abundance of complex organic compounds in the universe through to the latest advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. The background to the book is the extraordinary scientific adventures that are being undertaken as progress is made toward the creation of an artificial cell and the control of life processes. This journey involves input from research areas as diverse as genetic engineering, physical chemistry,...
(4 days ago)


Complexity Digest has been successfully networking the complexity community since fall of 1999. It is edited by Dr. Carlos Gershenson, and published by the Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS) and the Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad (C3) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), the most prestigious university in Latin America and hispanic countries.

Its founding editor was Dr Gottfried Mayer, a member of the complexity community since his residence at the Santa Fe Institute in its early days. He deceased victim of cancer on January, 2009. Until then, the sponsor of ComDig was Dean LeBaron, trustee of SFI and investment commentator. ComDig was created by Gottfried and Dean, and we try to follow their original ideas.

Contributors are welcome to send submissions to

ComDig hopes to be of use to all of the growing number of complexity organizations and supported by them.

ComDig has been distributed by weekly email to a list of people who request copies free of charge. ComDig iss also available through RSS (Real Simple Syndication).

Copies will be made available to organizations who may wish to repost ComDig to their own mailing lists. Some may customize the appearance of the content provided to them.

Readership should range from academics in almost every field to business people who want to know how to use the concepts. From students in search of knowledge to journalists looking for items from this rich field of activity. All are encouraged so long as it is of use to them.